In this ‘Ultimate Guide‘ I’m going to show you the most effective DHT blockers I’ve ever discovered after 4 years of research into the causes and treatments for hair loss.
Some blockers you can apply topically, some can be taken internally, and finally I’ll show you my favorite and number one way to block DHT naturally.
- DHT: The Cause Of Male-Pattern Baldness?
- The Two Types of Natural DHT Blockers: Explained
- 5 Topical DHT Blockers
- 5 Internal DHT Blockers
- How to Use Topical and Internal DHT Blockers
- FDA-Approved Treatments: An Overview
- DHT Blocker Side Effects
- Important! Why You Must Know About DHT Sensitivity
- Frequently Asked Questions About DHT and DHT Blockers
My final method won’t involve any drugs or any expensive supplements that you need to take every day. It involves a systematic biochemical change in your body – that powerfully balances your DHT levels over time – helping you stop any further hair loss.
Now, before I dig into the main point of this article, I’d first like to discuss DHT blockers and the role they play in the prevention of hair loss.
There are two ways to supplement with DHT inhibitors: topically and internally. Of course, each method of supplementation will have its own mechanisms behind their efficacy.
However, it’s first important to understand why blocking DHT works to prevent hair loss and promote hair growth in the first place.
NOTE: The majority of DHT blockers in this article have NOT been tested on humans. There is no clear evidence that these natural DHT blockers cause hair regrowth in humans, more studies are needed in this area. This is unlikely to help. This is not an FDA approved treatment. Do see a doctor before you proceed with treatment.
DHT: The Cause Of Male-Pattern Baldness?
Male-pattern baldness, or Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) is a common condition, accounting for 95 percent of hair loss seen in men. But what causes male-pattern baldness, and can it be reversed?
It’s commonly believed that the main culprit behind male-pattern balding is DHT (2). This stands for Dihydrotestosterone, and it’s an androgen sex hormone that is produced from testosterone.
Essentially, testosterone, the sex hormone responsible for your “maleness”, combines with 5-alpha-reductase, an enzyme involved in steroid metabolism.
This results in the production of DHT, a compound which can wreak havoc throughout your body, especially your scalp.
Once there, DHT connects to the androgen receptors at the base of the hair follicles. For those who are sensitive to DHT, this leads to miniaturization of the hair follicles and, eventually, hair thinning and loss.
So, perhaps you’re thinking, why not just block testosterone?
Essentially, blocking testosterone will lead to a decrease in the characteristics that make you male.
What’s the next best step?
There are two other components of the process, both of which can be inhibited with little to no ill effects: 5-alpha-reductase and DHT.
Below, you’ll find a list of dihydrotestosterone blockers. This is a bit of a misnomer, as some of the ingredients block DHT, while others inhibit the activities of 5-alpha-reductase, thereby preventing the production of DHT to begin with.
However, all of the listed ingredients can be a beneficial addition to your hair loss treatment routine, and I recommend you experiment with them to find the one that works best for you.
The Two Types of Natural DHT Blockers: Explained
When it comes to blocking DHT or inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, there are two ways to go about it. They each have their benefits and drawbacks, so let’s explore both.
Internal DHT Blockers
If you’ve been researching hair loss for a while, it’s very likely that the first thing to come to find when you hear “internal DHT blocker” is finasteride. It’s a popular hair loss treatment drug, after all!
As mentioned above, finasteride actually works to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase. This blocks the production of DHT indirectly.
How does this work?
An internal DHT blocker is taken orally. This is usually done in the form of a pill or capsule. The active ingredient then enters the bloodstream and begins to interrupt the processes involved in DHT production and androgen receptor activity.
The levels of DHT within the body will decline, which means that less DHT Is available to attach to the androgen receptors at the hair follicles. That’s good, right? Sure. Do remember, though, that internal DHT blockers are indiscriminate. This means they target the process of DHT production throughout the body and not only at the scalp.
The risk of side effects when using an internal DHT blocker will depend on the dosage, as well as other factors. There’s no denying, however, that internal DHT blockers have higher risks than topical DHT blockers.
External (Topical) DHT Blockers
If you’re looking for less risk of side effects, then consider external (topical) DHT blockers.
As the nomenclature suggests, external DHT blockers are applied topically to the area you want to treat. They are absorbed into the skin and enter the bloodstream in order to interfere with DHT activity at the hair follicle.
The benefit to this is less chance of systemic side effects (such as the sexual side effects so common in finasteride use). The flipside to that is topical DHT blockers tend to be less potent than oral blockers. A lower concentration is entering the bloodstream, so there’s less of an impact. This can be a benefit for those who have suffered from DHT blocking side effects in the past, though.
5 Topical DHT Blockers
When you have a condition – whether severe or not – it’s common to treat the underlying cause in order to reduce symptoms and treat the condition effectively.
For individuals with androgenetic alopecia, doesn’t it make sense then to treat the condition at the source (scalp) and block DHT present within the scalp before it’s able to do damage?
That’s the logic behind topical DHT blockers, and why I recommend their use in combination with internal blockers.
Topical All-Natural Blockers
Let’s look at five topical DHT blockers that you can start using today.
1: Saw Palmetto
This is a berry-producing plant native to the Americas, and one which is believed to inhibit the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase (6). This is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to DHT, and therefore acts as a preemptive DHT blocker.
Unlike the majority of the other substances that inhibit DHT on this list, saw palmetto works most effectively at reducing DHT present in the body and scalp.
This was shown in a 2016 study performed by Opoku-Acheampong et. al., when saw palmetto was combined with either testosterone or DHT in syrian hamster flank organs (7).
As shown by the above photo comparison, saw palmetto combined with testosterone was better at reducing pigmentation of the flank organ (a sign of androgen activities) than the saw palmetto-DHT combination.
This is because saw palmetto works best by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase as opposed to stopping the activities of DHT.
NOTE: Do keep in mind that this study was performed on hamsters. However, this treatment may still prove beneficial for humans, too.
2: Stinging Nettle
Stinging nettle is a plant indigenous to parts of North America, Europe, and Asia, and it’s well-known for its ‘stinging’ effects when touched. What you may not have known, however, is that stinging nettle extract is an excellent topical DHT blocker (8).
A 2011 research study which considered the effects of stinging nettle on BPH found that it decreased prostate size, a strong indicator of its 5-alpha-reductase inhibitory effects (9).
While this first study was done on rats, a previous study performed by Safarinejad studied stinging nettle’s effects on BPH in human patients (10).
In fact, this was a large-scale study with 620 patients in total.
The study was performed over a period of 6 months, and the results were collected using various models and techniques. These included:
- International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS);
- Maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax);
- Postvoid Residual Urine Volume (PVR);
- Serum Pros-tatic-Specific Antigen (PSA);
- Testosterone levels; and
- Prostate size
After 6 months, both the IPSS and Qmax decreased significantly in the stinging nettle group. For example, the IPSS decreased from 19.8 down to 11.8. In the placebo group, it only decreased from 19.2 to 17.7.
What does this mean for hair loss sufferers?
Stinging nettle has been shown to inhibit 5AR’s activities, which is great for men and women with AGA.
3: Reishi Mushroom
As a newly-discovered DHT blocker, reishi mushroom is still gaining traction in the world of hair loss treatment and hair growth.
That doesn’t mean it’s any less effective at treating the underlying cause of AGA, though, and is an excellent addition to your topical hair care routine.
In a 2005 study, the DHT-blocking abilities of 19 different mushrooms was tested (11). While the majority of the tested mushrooms did inhibit the activity of 5-alpha-reductase, Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) was the clear winner:
It actually had an inhibitory percentage of over 70 percent, which was significantly better than the other mushrooms in the study.
By inhibiting 5AR’s activities, reishi is comparable to finasteride in that both inhibit 5AR and, as a result, reduce the amount of DHT that attaches to the hair follicles.
4: Rosemary Oil and Extract
As an analgesic oil with antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties (just to name a few), rosemary oil is a helpful addition to any hair loss sufferers hair care routine (12, 13, 14).
On the topic of DHT blocking, specifically, topical application of rosemary extract has been proven to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase. As a result, this blocks DHT from connecting to the scalp’s androgen receptors and prevents hair loss and hair follicle miniaturization.
But just how much of an effect does rosemary extract have on the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase?
According to a 2013 study, topical applications of 200 mg/mL and 500 mg/mL inhibited the conversion of 5-alpha-reductase by 82.4 percent and 94.6 percent, respectively (15).
That’s better than finasteride’s inhibition percentage (81.9 percent) in the same study.
5: Ecklonia Cava
An alga that’s found off the coasts of Japan and Korea, E. Cava is a promising new lead when it comes to the cessation of hair loss and growth of new hair.
While E. Cava may make a delicious addition to your soups, its topical use has been proven to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase and, therefore, DHT (18). When applied as a whole, E. Cava was shown to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase up to 61.5 percent. Even better, though, was the inhibition results of the polyphenol extract dieckol:
Dieckol is found in abundance within the alga. The highest concentration tested (100 mg/mL) actually proved to be just as effective as finasteride:
This means that E. Cava and its extracts are a good option to consider if you’re looking to block DHT and even contribute to the proliferation of new dermal papilla cells (19).
5 Internal DHT Blockers
While topically reducing DHT certainly have their place in the treatment of hair loss and promotion of hair growth, internal DHT inhibition can be more beneficial than topical blockers in the long term.
Internal All-Natural Blockers
Let’s look at five internal DHT blockers that you can start using today.
1: Green Tea
Green tea is commonly touted as a cure-all, but did you know that green tea extract can actually be used to block DHT and treat the source of male-pattern baldness?
Green tea is a source of epigallocatechins (EGCG) (20). These are catechins, a type of plant phenol with a variety of beneficial properties.
One such property of epigallocatechins is its proven ability to inhibit the activity of 5-alpha-reducatase (21).
To reap the benefits of green tea supplementation, you could of course increase your tea intake or add in a green tea supplement.
Two studies were performed on animals, both showing the benefits associated with flaxseed supplementation.
The first study, performed in 2013, measured the effects of various plant-based lignans on DHT (23). These plants included flaxseed, sesame, safflower, and soy, and were administered orally either in powdered form or in a petroleum extract.
The study was performed on castrated male rats, with a focus on prostate weight (as lowered weight indicates less androgenic activity).
Flax (both the powdered and ethanol extract) proved to decrease prostate weight, as well as lower testosterone levels. These are both strong indicators of 5-alpha-reductase inhibition.
The second study, performed in 2014, looked specifically to flaxseed’s hair growth benefits (24).
To quickly summarize, 16 rabbits were split into groups of two. The first group received regular rabbit feed (control), while the second group received a feed infused with crushed flax (test).
Over a period of three months, a section on the rabbits’ backs were shaved once per month. Measurements were taken each time, and these were the results:
As shown above, the group that received flaxseed supplementation (LSI) saw improved length, width, and weight of hair.
Scientists couldn’t exactly pinpoint the reason for such results. However, I think it’s safe to say that DHT blocking (as shown above in the first study) is one of the main contributors.
One of the easiest ways to work it into your routine is by adding it (milled or powdered) to your smoothies. This adds a nice boost of fiber, as well as adds a slightly nutty depth.
You can also sprinkle it on your salads, add to stir frys, and even make your own flaxseed dressing with a bit of honey and lemon!
3: Sesame Seeds
In the 2013 study on flaxseed mentioned above, sesame seeds were another plant-based lignan studied (27). In fact, the ethanol extract of sesame seeds were shown to be incredibly effective at reducing prostate weight and testosterone levels in the tested rats.
And, similar to flax, sesame seeds are very easy to incorporate into your diet.
Mix a few drops of sesame oil into your smoothies, soups, and salads. Or, use it in place of canola or olive oil while cooking. Add a few sesame seeds to your favorite dishes, including chicken, fish, and pork for a slightly nutty flavor.
There’s plenty of ways to add this healthy supplement to your daily diet. Take a look at some of my favorite hair loss supplements here.
Pygeum is a bark from the Pygeum Africanum tree, believed to significantly relieve the symptoms of men who suffer from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (31).
BPH is an enlargement of the prostate, and can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (32).
DHT is a well-known aggravator of BPH, meaning that its inhibition contributes to a shrinking of the enlarged prostate and a reduction in the painful and irritating symptoms associated with the condition (33).
This was shown in a 1998 review study, which considered the role that pygeum bark played in the reduction of BPH symptoms (34).
As proven, men treated with pygeum bark were twice as likely than the placebo group to report symptom and improvement.
In addition, nocturnal urination was reduced by 19 percent, residual urine volume (urine remaining in the bladder) was reduced by 24 percent, and peak urine flow was increased by 23 percent.
To supplement with pygeum, I recommend adding high-quality supplement to your day. A dosage of 100mg/day is a typical recommendation (35).
5: Pumpkin Seed Oil
Of course, pumpkin seed oil can be applied topically. This provides gentle cleansing and is an excellent way to maintain a healthy scalp.
However, for those looking to treat male-pattern baldness, pumpkin seed oil is most effective when ingested. Why? Pumpkin seed oil is believed to inhibit the activity of 5-alpha-reductase. When done internally, this is the most effective method for inhibition.
How effective is this method?
In 2014, scientists in Korea asked this very question (38). To answer their question, they recruited 76 male subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Half received a supplement containing PSO (400 mg per day) while the other half received a placebo capsule.
At the end of the 24-week study, 44.1 percent of the men in the supplement group saw a mild-moderate improvement in hair growth. This same improvement was seen in only 7.7 percent of the placebo group.
And here’s the visual evidence that supplements containing PSO can be effective DHT blockers:
One thing to point out is that PSO was not the only ingredient within the supplement. However, it very likely did contribute to the hair growth effects as shown above. How can I know this? Well, consider all of the benefits of PSO. These include anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic (39, 40).
So, how can you add PSO to your daily routine?
Pumpkin seeds are a great snack by themselves. You can eat them by the handful, or toss them onto salads, into soups, and even blended into smoothies and juices.
How to Use Topical and Internal DHT Blockers
If you’d like to add topical and/or internal DHT blockers to your hair care routine, there are a few options for doing so.
The most common way to use DHT blockers is topically. This includes in shampoos and solutions, but sometimes even directly.
There are many products already on the market with DHT-blocking ingredients. These include our very own line – Hairguard.
Such products can have positive effects on the hair follicles, and they’re less likely to produce side effects as with internal blockers.
But there are also ways to add internal blockers to your routine if you so wish.
Perhaps the easiest way is with supplements.
Over-the-counter supplements will often contain the recommended daily dose (or close to it) of a variety of vitamins and nutrients. And some of these can even be DHT blockers, such as those containing green tea, pumpkin seed oil, and flaxseed.
You can also add many of the internal ingredients mentioned above to your smoothies, juices, and other recipes.
Now, with all of the above said, it’s time to discuss the number one DHT blocker method. Without further ado…
FDA-Approved Treatments: An Overview
There’s been mention of an FDA-approved DHT blocker throughout this article. It’s called finasteride, and it’s a common hair loss treatment method prescribed by doctors worldwide.
Finasteride works by inhibiting the activities of 5AR which indirectly reduces the concentration of DHT in the body.
Finasteride isn’t the only FDA-approved treatment, though. There’s also minoxidil, a topical solution that’s believed to work by stimulating blood flow to the scalp.
Are these treatments right for you? While I recommend against them, they may be something you want to consider with your doctor.
DHT Blocker Side Effects
Before you move ahead with any of the DHT blockers on the list, it’s important to consider the potential negative effects of their use.
As was touched on briefly, there is a potential for side effects when you use a DHT blocker. The risk increases with internal DHT blockers, though it’s possible to experience them with topical blockers, too.
When you’re suffering from hair loss, it’s easy to see DHT as the enemy. DHT does play some beneficial roles in the body, though.
DHT is an androgen sex steroid that plays a major role in male sexual development. It assists in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as body hair, facial hair, and pubic hair. The use of DHT blockers has been shown to lower libido and decrease sexual function. This suggests that DHT plays a major role in many things that make a man feel, well, manly.
Let’s take a closer look at the potential side effects associated with DHT blockers. They include:
- Loss of libido;
- Inability to get an erection;
- Inability to maintain an erection;
- Inability to ejaculate;
- Loss of ejaculatory volume;
- Lowered sperm count.
In some cases, the use of DHT blockers can even cause enlarged breast tissue, testicular pain, and a rash.
This list of side effects isn’t meant to scare you away. It should lead you to question your commitment to hair loss treatment, though, as well as help you to consider alternative options.
If you choose to go ahead, then consider a low-dose internal DHT blocker or a topical DHT blocker. You should also consult with your doctor prior to starting the use of a DHT blocker.
Do keep in mind that if you stop using a DHT blocker, you will likely experience increased hair shedding and hairline recession. This is because the DHT blocker doesn’t treat the underlying issue.
Important! Why You Must Know About DHT Sensitivity
You’ve now learnt about the most powerful (and safe) natural DHT blocker in the world, but this is only a small part of the story, because high DHT levels are not the sole cause of hair loss.
In fact, there is something that is much more important than blocking DHT, and that’s DHT sensitivity. Or to be more precise, hair follicle DHT sensitivity.
Because when you reduce the sensitivity of your hair follicles to DHT you protect yourself against hair lose permanently. Men with pattern baldness don’t have particularly high levels of DHT, however they are more sensitive to it.
There are a few natural and powerful ways to reduce your DHT sensitivity. I will do a quick overview of them now.
The Balance Of Good And Bad Bacteria
In every body there is a balance between good and bad bacteria. In fact, there are more bacterial cells making up the human body than human cells, which is why it is so important that these bacteria are beneficial to your health.
These billions of bacteria cells that make up part of us are called the ‘microbiome’ (46).
However, modern life has waged a war on bacteria in the form of antibiotics, preservatives (designed to kill bacteria), chlorides and fluorides in water, processed foods lacking fiber, antibacterial hygiene products, and packaged food and drinks that have been processed, microwaved, and pasteurized.
You may be able to see with all these how our microbiome has been damaged and can easily get out of balance.
One of the side-effects of this damaged microbiome is that autoimmune problems start arising, with the body beginning to attack itself in strange and unusual ways. Think about it, have you ever wondered why your own hormone (DHT) would start attacking your own hair follicles?
This is an autoimmune problem that leads to DHT sensitivity.
Luckily, there is a lot you can do to optimize your microbiome to reduce DHT sensitivity, including adding specific strains of probiotic bacteria to your diet, as well as specially made drinks that reduce bad bacteria.
(Learn more about the microbiome, and its effects on hair loss, here.)
Delayed Allergic Reactions To Food
Most of us are aware that some people are allergic to some specific foods, such as seafood or peanuts, for example. But fewer people know that allergic reactions can also be delayed and, therefore, less obvious.
Because they are less obvious it’s harder to catch delayed allergic reactions and we may be in a constant state of inflammation which can cause autoimmune problems from these reactions.
For example, some people are sensitive to gluten while others are sensitive to the nightshade family including tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplant.
It’s hard to tell what your body might not be responding well to if you aren’t aware of this. You may just feel bloated, fatigued, and under slept and not understand why.
You can work out which foods you are sensitive to (if any) with an elimination diet (47). This is a highly restrictive diet which is best performed under the watch of a trained physician.
Mechanical Tension of the Scalp
Perhaps one of the more interesting theories regarding male-pattern baldness is the one that implicates mechanical tension of the scalp as a major contributor.
Let me explain.
Just as with the skin, there are multiple layers of the scalp that play different roles. From outermost to innermost, these layers are: skin, subcutaneous, galea, subgalea, and pericranium.
The galea is a fibrous, connective tissue that covers the entirety of the scalp from just above the eyebrows (the frontalis muscle) to behind the ears (the occipitalis muscle) (48). And this tissue may actually be responsible for the progression of pattern balding (49).
The tension theory states that activation of the Hic-5 protein, an androgen receptor co-activator which improves the function of a cell’s androgen receptors, may be triggered by mechanical tension of the galea.
But why would activation of Hic-5 mean hair loss? Because as an androgen receptor co-activator, this protein has been shown to induce androgen sensitivity in the hair follicles (50).
So, what’s the solution? Reducing scalp tension!
By reducing tension, you can reduce your need for DHT blockers such as those mentioned above.
Frequently Asked Questions About DHT and DHT Blockers
The wealth of information shared above and elsewhere on the blog can be overwhelming. That’s why I’m going to answer your most frequently asked questions on the topic of DHT and DHT blockers. Let’s dive in!
What is DHT?
I touched upon the role of DHT in hair loss above, but let’s discuss the androgen hormone more in-depth.
DHT, dihydrotestosterone, is an androgen sex steroid and hormone. The hormone is a by-product, or derivative, of testosterone.
It has many functions in the human body (both males and females), including sexual development, muscle growth, and even as an anti-inflammatory.
The androgen works by connecting to androgen receptors found in many locations throughout the body, including the prostate gland, skin, hair follicles, liver, and brain.
How Can I Tell If I’m Sensitive to DHT?
Are you unsure whether the cause of your hair loss is male-pattern baldness? This is a common problem among men (and women) who are suffering from hair shedding, hairline recession, and hair loss.
The easiest way for men to determine the true cause of their hair loss is to examine the pattern.
Men with androgenetic alopecia will experience a tell-tale pattern of balding. It will first become noticeable at the temples and hairline as the hairline recedes. The eventual pattern will form an M-shape which will only deepen with time.
It can be more difficult for women to determine if DHT sensitivity is the cause of their hair loss, as it can often masquerade as diffuse thinning. This means that women may initially notice a general thinning of the hair over their entire scalp, though there may be greater loss at the crown.
If you’re unsure of the cause of your hair loss, or if you’d like professional confirmation, then I’d suggest you visit a dermatologist. A dermatologist can examine your scalp and hairs under a microscope. This will shed light on the true cause which you can then treat appropriately.
Why Am I Sensitive to DHT?
For many years, it was thought that people with pattern baldness had an excess of DHT. This is why drugs like finasteride became so popular.
The truth is that men and women with androgenetic alopecia don’t necessarily have higher levels of DHT in their body. They will likely have a higher concentration of DHT at the scalp (which can be explained by the Scalp Tension Theory of Hair Loss mentioned above). The true issue, though, is follicular sensitivity to the androgen hormone.
So, why are some individuals sensitive to DHT while others aren’t?
The same question can be asked of other sensitivities. The answer? We don’t fully know.
If you subscribe to the Scalp Tension Theory of Hair Loss, this sensitivity may be explained by chronic scalp tension. If you subscribe to the DHT Theory of Hair Loss, then the answer may be a genetic predisposition. Or, it could be a combination of the two.
No matter why you’re sensitive to DHT, the one thing that is known is that the sensitivity must be addressed if you wish to stop further hair loss.
Why Can’t I Block DHT Entirely?
If we know that DHT plays such a significant role in pattern hair loss, why don’t we block it entirely?
As an androgen hormone with many roles, it would be detrimental to block DHT within the body entirely. Doing so would have many immediate side effects, and there’s no telling the extent of side effects from long-term blocking of the hormone.
The fact is, DHT isn’t all bad. You don’t want to block DHT throughout the body, but instead just reduce its presence at the hair follicles.
You can do so with some of the natural DHT blockers above (I recommend topical over internal), with topical finasteride (in development), or with scalp tension relief.
These methods will work to reduce DHT at the follicle without interrupting its important roles throughout the rest of the body.
Is it Possible to Remove DHT Instead of Blocking It?
With the side effects associated with DHT blockers, it’s not uncommon to want to avoid blocking it altogether. So, what’s the alternative?
One way that many people have dealt with DHT sensitivity at the scalp is to remove DHT once it’s present.
This approach to hair loss treatment is more reactive than proactive, but many people have had success with it especially when using other methods (like scalp massage, or minoxidil).
There are specialty shampoos on the market that claim to remove DHT from the scalp, though they really just block it externally. One way to truly remove DHT from the scalp is with an epidermal scrub using ingredients like hyaluronic acid, salt, and charcoal. You can learn more about natural ways to remove DHT from the scalp here.
There’s no doubt that sensitivity to DHT plays a role in pattern hair loss. As such, by blocking (or minimizing the presence of) DHT you may be able to stop hair loss and even promote growth.
However, this will only treat the problem temporarily.
This is why I urge you to find out the underlying cause of your hair loss, and then target it directly.
If you have any questions or comments. please feel free to leave them in the comment box below which I’ll answer as soon as possible.